What is Infrastructure as Code (IaC)?

Infrastructure as Code (IaC) , a practice of using code to manage and automate IT infrastructure, including servers, networks, storage, and other components. It involves defining infrastructure configurations as code, which can be version-controlled, tested, and deployed in a repeatable and consistent manner.

Infrastructure as Code with AWS
Infrastructure as Code with AWS

Benefits of IaC

There are several benefits to using IaC, including:

  • Consistency: IaC enables you to define and manage infrastructure in a consistent and repeatable way, reducing the risk of configuration drift and errors.
  • Efficiency: IaC allows you to automate the deployment and management of infrastructure, reducing the time and effort required for manual tasks.
  • Scalability: IaC makes it easy to scale infrastructure up or down as needed, without the need for manual intervention.
  • Reliability: IaC enables you to test infrastructure configurations before deployment, reducing the risk of outages or failures.
  • Collaboration: IaC allows teams to work together on infrastructure code, leveraging version control and other software development practices.

IaC principles

Several principles guide IaC, including:

  • Declarative: IaC defines the desired state of infrastructure, rather than the steps needed to achieve that state.
  • Idempotent: IaC ensures that the same configuration can be applied repeatedly without causing issues or unexpected changes.
  • Modular: IaC breaks infrastructure into reusable, composable components, making it easier to manage complex systems.
  • Testable: IaC enables testing of infrastructure code, including unit tests, integration tests, and acceptance tests.
  • Version-controlled: IaC configurations are stored in version control, allowing for rollbacks, code reviews, and collaboration.

IaC on AWS

IaC on AWS refers to the practice of using code to provision and manage infrastructure resources on the Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud platform. With IaC, you can define your infrastructure as code using a high-level programming language and automate the process of provisioning, configuring, and deploying resources. This approach can help you achieve consistency, repeatability, and scalability in your infrastructure management, as well as reduce manual effort, minimize errors, and increase agility. You can study further about this from the official website .Following are IaC tools available on AWS

AWS CloudFormation

  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC) tool provided by AWS
  • Automates the creation and management of AWS resources
  • Defines resources and dependencies in JSON or YAML templates
  • Benefits:
    • Consistent and repeatable provisioning of resources
    • Simplifies infrastructure management and scaling
    • Allows for versioning and rollback of infrastructure changes


  • AWS Cloud Development Kit (CDK) is a high-level IaC tool provided by AWS
  • Defines infrastructure using familiar programming languages like TypeScript, Python, and Java
  • Allows for the use of object-oriented programming paradigms like classes, functions, and loops to define infrastructure
  • Benefits:
    • Enables developers to use programming constructs to define infrastructure
    • Simplifies infrastructure creation and management
    • Improves code reuse and maintainability


  • Open-source IaC tool that can be used with AWS and other cloud providers
  • Uses its own domain-specific language (DSL) called HashiCorp Configuration Language (HCL)
  • Provides a large number of community-maintained modules that can be used to define infrastructure
  • Benefits:
    • Supports multi-cloud infrastructure definition
    • It enables the use of a wide range of community-maintained modules
    • Provides a user-friendly interface for defining and managing infrastructure

Getting Started with IaC

Setting up an AWS account

  • Before getting started with IaC on AWS, you’ll need to set up an AWS account
  • You can sign up for a free aws account on the AWS website
  • Once you have an account, you’ll need to create an IAM user with appropriate permissions for your IaC tool to use

Choosing an IaC tool

  • There are several IaC tools available for use with AWS, including AWS CloudFormation, AWS CDK, and Terraform
  • Each tool has its own advantages and disadvantages, so it’s important to choose one that best fits your needs
  • Factors to consider when choosing an IaC tool include:
    • Familiarity with programming languages and syntax
    • Community support and available resources
    • Integration with other tools and services

Defining infrastructure

  • Once you’ve chosen an IaC tool, you can begin defining your infrastructure
  • This involves creating a blueprint or template that specifies the AWS resources you want to create and how they should be configured
  • In AWS CloudFormation, this is done using a JSON or YAML template
  • In AWS CDK, this is done using programming languages like TypeScript, Python, or Java
  • In Terraform, this is done using HCL
  • It’s important to follow best practices when defining your infrastructure, including using modular templates, version control, and testing your code before deployment.

IaC Best Practices


  • Modularizing your infrastructure code involves breaking up your templates or code into smaller, reusable pieces
  • Modularizing makes it easier to manage and update your infrastructure
  • Benefits:
    • Improves code readability and maintainability
    • Enables code reuse and faster development of new resources
    • Makes it easier to test and troubleshoot code

DRY (Don’t Repeat Yourself)

  • DRY is a software development principle that aims to reduce redundancy and repetition in code
  • In the context of IaC, this means avoiding duplication of code across templates or resources
  • Benefits:
    • Reduces errors and inconsistencies in code
    • Simplifies code management and reduces development time
    • Improves code clarity and readability


  • Idempotency means that applying the same configuration multiple times will result in the same outcome as applying it once
  • In IaC, this means that applying a template multiple times should not result in unintended changes to your infrastructure
  • Benefits:
    • Reduces the risk of errors and unintended consequences when applying templates
    • Enables more predictable and consistent infrastructure management
    • Simplifies troubleshooting and problem resolution

Version Control

  • Version control involves using a tool to track changes to your infrastructure code over time
  • This enables you to manage and roll back changes, collaborate with others, and maintain a history of your infrastructure
  • Benefits:
    • Enables collaboration and shared development of infrastructure code
    • Provides a history of changes and the ability to roll back changes if necessary
    • Improves code organization and management

Advanced IaC Techniques

Dynamic resource creation

This technique involves dynamically creating resources based on certain conditions or triggers.

For example, you can use AWS Lambda functions to create resources when certain events occur, such as a new user being added to an IAM group. This approach can help reduce manual effort and automate the process of creating resources as needed.

Conditional resource creation

This technique involves creating resources conditionally based on certain criteria.

For example, you can use AWS CloudFormation to create resources only if certain conditions are met, such as a specific tag being applied to an EC2 instance. This approach can help prevent the creation of unnecessary resources and save costs.

Using AWS SDKs with IaC

This technique involves leveraging AWS SDKs to interact with AWS resources from within your IaC code. This can provide greater flexibility and enable you to perform more complex operations. For example, you can use the AWS SDK for Python (Boto3) to create, update, or delete resources based on specific conditions.

IaC Security and Compliance

AWS Config

AWS Config is a service that enables you to assess, audit, and evaluate the configuration of your AWS resources. It provides a detailed inventory of your resources and helps you identify any potential security and compliance issues. You can use AWS Config rules to automatically check the compliance of your resources against predefined or custom rules.

AWS Security Hub

AWS Security Hub is a central repository for security and compliance data across your AWS accounts. It provides a unified view of your security posture and can help you identify and prioritize security issues. You can use Security Hub to automate compliance checks and streamline your security operations.

AWS Audit Manager

AWS Audit Manager is a service that automates the process of auditing your AWS resources against industry standards and best practices. It provides prebuilt frameworks and templates to simplify the audit process and generate comprehensive reports. You can use Audit Manager to continuously monitor your compliance posture and identify any potential issues.


In conclusion, IaC is a powerful technique for managing your cloud infrastructure on AWS. By using IaC tools as we discussed above, AWS CloudFormation, AWS Terraform, and AWS SAM, we can easily define and manage our infrastructure as code, which makes it easier to maintain, deploy and scale the applications. With the use of advanced techniques such as dynamic and conditional resource creation and leveraging AWS SDKs, one can automate the process of creating and managing resources in AWS, saving time and reducing manual effort. Additionally, AWS provides various security and compliance services such as AWS Config, AWS Security Hub, and AWS Audit Manager which helps us ensure that our infrastructure is secure and compliant with industry standards and best practices.

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