In the previous article, we discussed the importance of securing AWS Lambda and a few steps involved in implementing security and compliance considerations. To build upon this foundation, in this article, we will dive deeper into the remaining security and compliance considerations when using AWS Lambda. These considerations will help ensure the protection of your sensitive data and adhere to regulatory requirements.
In this article, we will cover topics such as updating the Lambda function and its dependencies, and implementing network segmentation. Additionally, we will also touch on security testing and compliance with industry regulations.
By following the best practices outlined in this article, you can help ensure that your AWS Lambda environment is secure and compliant, and that you are able to respond quickly to any security incidents.
Keep the AWS Lambda function and its dependencies updated
Keep your Lambda function and its dependencies updated to the latest version in order to address any known security vulnerabilities.
To keep the Lambda function and its dependencies updated using AWS CLI, follow these steps:
- Check the version of the AWS CLI installed: Run the following command
to check the version of the AWS CLI installed.
2. Update the AWS CLI: If the AWS CLI version is outdated, update it by following the instructions in the AWS CLI documentation.
3. Retrieve the list of the current Lambda functions: Run
aws lambda list-functions
to retrieve the list of the current Lambda functions.
4. Get the details of the Lambda function you want to update: Run
aws lambda get-function --function-name <function_name>
to get the details of the function you want to update.
5. Update the Lambda function: Run
aws lambda update-function-code --function-name <function_name> --zip-file fileb://<zip_file_path>
to update the Lambda function code.
6. Update the dependencies of the Lambda function: Re-package the dependencies of the Lambda function and update the code accordingly.
7. Test the updated Lambda function: Test the updated Lambda function to ensure it’s working as expected.
8. Repeat these steps for each Lambda function and its dependencies that you want to update.
Implement network segmentation
Utilize network segmentation to restrict access to the Lambda environment by implementing network ACLs, security groups, and VPC endpoint policies.
Here are the steps to implement network segmentation using the AWS CLI:
- Create a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) using the AWS CLI:
aws ec2 create-vpc --cidr-block <VPC CIDR block>
Creating a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) helps to implement network segmentation in AWS by providing isolated network environments for AWS resources. This allows you to control and restrict network access to your resources, helping to secure sensitive data and systems. Additionally, using VPCs can improve the performance and reliability of your applications by keeping them isolated from other network traffic. Implementing network segmentation through a VPC is a best practice for securing AWS resources, and can be accomplished through the AWS CLI by creating and configuring VPCs, subnets, security groups, and network ACLs.
2. Create a subnet in the VPC:
aws ec2 create-subnet --vpc-id <VPC ID> --cidr-block <Subnet CIDR block>
Creating subnets within a Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) is an important step in implementing network segmentation using the AWS CLI. Subnets allow you to segment your VPC network into smaller, isolated network segments, providing additional control over network access to your AWS resources. This helps to improve the security of your resources by reducing the attack surface and limiting access to only necessary resources. Additionally, subnets can be used to control access to the internet, improving the performance and reliability of your applications by reducing external traffic. By creating and configuring subnets within a VPC using the AWS CLI, you can further segment and secure your network environment.
3. Create a security group:
aws ec2 create-security-group --group-name <Security Group Name> --description <Security Group Description> --vpc-id <VPC ID>
Creating a security group is an important step in implementing network segmentation using the AWS CLI. A security group acts as a virtual firewall that controls incoming and outgoing network traffic to and from AWS resources associated with it. By creating a security group and attaching it to your AWS resources, you can control and restrict access to your resources based on the specific rules you define.
This helps to improve the security of your resources by limiting access to only necessary traffic and preventing unauthorized access. Additionally, security groups provide an additional layer of network security, making it more difficult for attackers to compromise your environment. By creating and configuring security groups using the AWS CLI, you can further segment and secure your network environment and better control network access to your resources.
4. Add rules to the security group to restrict incoming and outgoing traffic:
aws ec2 authorize-security-group-ingress --group-id <Security Group ID> --protocol <Protocol> --port <Port> --cidr-block <CIDR Block>
Adding rules to a security group is an essential step in implementing network segmentation using the AWS CLI. By adding rules, you define the specific incoming and outgoing traffic that is allowed or denied to and from your AWS resources associated with the security group. This helps to control access to your resources and reduce the risk of unauthorized access.
For example, you can restrict incoming traffic to only allow access from specific IP ranges or specific ports, or you can restrict outgoing traffic to only allow access to specific resources or services. This helps to improve the security of your environment by limiting access to only necessary traffic and preventing unauthorized access. By adding rules to a security group using the AWS CLI, you can effectively implement network segmentation and better control network access to your resources.
5. Create a network ACL:
aws ec2 create-network-acl --vpc-id <VPC ID>
Creating a network ACL in AWS allows you to control inbound and outbound traffic at the subnet level. By implementing network segmentation with a network ACL, you can control which IP addresses and ports can access the resources in your subnet, increasing the security and isolation of your environment. This can be done using the AWS CLI by creating a new network ACL, specifying the rules for incoming and outgoing traffic, and then associating it with the desired subnet.
6. Add rules to the network ACL to restrict incoming and outgoing traffic:
aws ec2 create-network-acl-entry --network-acl-id <Network ACL ID> --rule-number <Rule Number> --protocol <Protocol> --rule-action <Rule Action> --egress <Egress> --cidr-block <CIDR Block> --port-range <Port Range>
Adding rules to the network ACL in AWS allows you to control inbound and outbound traffic at a more granular level than a security group. By restricting incoming and outgoing traffic using the network ACL, you can further increase the security and isolation of your environment. This helps to prevent unauthorized access, mitigate security threats, and ensure compliance with security and regulatory standards. In the AWS CLI, you can add rules to a network ACL by specifying the desired protocol, port range, and source or destination IP address or subnet, and then associating the network ACL with the desired subnet.
7. Associate the network ACL with the subnet:
aws ec2 associate-network-acl --network-acl-id <Network ACL ID> --subnet-id <Subnet ID>
Associating the network ACL with the subnet is important to implement network segmentation in AWS because it enables the subnet to enforce the defined incoming and outgoing traffic rules. This helps to restrict access to the resources within the subnet and ensure that only authorized traffic is allowed to enter or leave the subnet. By implementing network segmentation through the use of network ACLs, security groups, and VPC endpoint policies, organizations can better secure their AWS environment and reduce the risk of security incidents.
8. Create a VPC endpoint for the Lambda service:
aws ec2 create-vpc-endpoint --vpc-id <VPC ID> --service-name <Service Name> --route-table-ids <Route Table ID>
Creating a VPC endpoint for the Lambda service helps to restrict access to the Lambda environment by allowing communication only within the VPC, rather than over the public internet. This provides a secure connection between the VPC and the Lambda service, enabling you to use the AWS CLI to manage Lambda functions within the VPC, while maintaining network segmentation.
9. Modify the VPC endpoint policy to restrict access to the Lambda service:
aws ec2 put-vpc-endpoint-policy --vpc-endpoint-id <VPC Endpoint ID> --policy-document <Policy Document>
Modifying the VPC endpoint policy helps to restrict access to the Lambda service, ensuring that only authorized entities can communicate with the service. This adds an additional layer of security to the network segmentation, ensuring that the Lambda environment is protected from unauthorized access, which can help prevent security incidents.
Securely configure triggers and event sources
Ensure that the triggers and event sources for your Lambda functions are configured securely by using appropriate access controls, encryption and authentication.
Here is a list of steps to securely configure triggers and event sources for your Lambda functions:
- Use resource-based policies for the triggers and event sources to define who is authorized to perform actions and access data.
- Enable encryption for all data in transit and at rest for the triggers and event sources using AWS Key Management Service (KMS) or AWS CloudHSM.
- Authenticate callers of the triggers and event sources using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies or API keys.
- Monitor the activity of triggers and event sources using AWS CloudTrail and AWS CloudWatch.
- Regularly review and update access control policies and encryption settings to ensure they are in line with your security requirements.
- Use VPC endpoints instead of public endpoints to access AWS services, where possible.
- Consider using multi-factor authentication (MFA) for critical events.
By following these steps, you can help to ensure that your Lambda functions’ triggers and event sources are configured securely.
Implement security testing
Regularly perform security testing on your Lambda function and its dependencies, such as vulnerability scanning, penetration testing, and runtime security testing.
You can conduct tests such as:
- Vulnerability scanning: Use tools like Amazon Inspector or third-party security scanning tools to scan the Lambda environment for known vulnerabilities and security issues.
- Penetration testing: Simulate a real-world attack scenario to test the security of your Lambda function and its environment.
- Runtime security testing: Use tools like AWS Lambda Proactive Guidance to test the runtime behavior of your Lambda function and detect any security issues.
- Code review: Regularly review the code for your Lambda function to ensure it meets security best practices and standards.
It is important to schedule regular security testing and to incorporate the results of these tests into your overall security strategy.
Ensure that your Lambda function and its associated infrastructure is compliant with any relevant regulations and industry standards such as SOC2, PCI-DSS, HIPAA, and GDPR.
- Identify relevant regulations and industry standards, such as SOC2, PCI-DSS, HIPAA, and GDPR, that apply to your organization.
- Review AWS service offerings to determine which ones can be used to support compliance with the identified regulations and standards.
- Implement the necessary controls, such as network segmentation, access controls, encryption, and security testing, to meet the requirements of the relevant regulations and standards.
- Regularly monitor and assess your compliance posture, and update your security controls as necessary.
- Document your compliance processes and procedures, and maintain records of your compliance assessments.
- Train employees on the importance of security and the measures in place to ensure compliance.
To conclude, when using AWS Lambda, it is important to consider security and compliance in order to protect sensitive data and meet regulatory requirements. This includes implementing encryption for data at rest and in transit, monitoring and logging activity, keeping the Lambda function and dependencies updated, utilizing network segmentation, securing triggers and event sources, regularly performing security testing, and ensuring compliance with relevant regulations and standards. Following these best practices can help ensure the secure and compliant use of AWS Lambda.